Characteristic and Functional Analysis of Toll-like Receptors TLRs in the lophotrocozoan, Crassostrea gigas, Reveals Ancient Origin of TLR-Mediated Innate ImmunityReportar como inadecuado




Characteristic and Functional Analysis of Toll-like Receptors TLRs in the lophotrocozoan, Crassostrea gigas, Reveals Ancient Origin of TLR-Mediated Innate Immunity - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

The evolution of TLR-mediated innate immunity is a fundamental question in immunology. Here, we report the characterization and functional analysis of four TLR members in the lophotrochozoans Crassostrea gigas CgTLRs. All CgTLRs bear a conserved domain organization and have a close relationship with TLRs in ancient non-vertebrate chordates. In HEK293 cells, every CgTLR could constitutively activate NF-κB responsive reporter, but none of the PAMPs tested could stimulate CgTLR-activated NF-κB induction. Subcellular localization showed that CgTLR members have similar and dual distribution on late endosomes and plasma membranes. Moreover, CgTLRs and CgMyD88 mRNA show a consistent response to multiple PAMP challenges in oyster hemocytes. As CgTLR-mediated NF-κB activation is dependent on CgMyD88, we designed a blocking peptide for CgTLR signaling that would inhibit CgTLR-CgMyD88 dependent NF-κB activation. This was used to demonstrate that a Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection-induced enhancement of degranulation and increase of cytokines TNF mRNA in hemocytes, could be inhibited by blocking CgTLR signaling. In summary, our study characterized the primitive TLRs in the lophotrocozoan C. gigas and demonstrated a fundamental role of TLR signaling in infection-induced hemocyte activation. This provides further evidence for an ancient origin of TLR-mediated innate immunity.



Autor: Yang Zhang , Xiaocui He , Feng Yu, Zhiming Xiang, Jun Li, Karen L. Thorpe, Ziniu Yu

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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