Multimodal Assessment of Long-Term Memory Recall and Reinstatement in a Combined Cue and Context Fear Conditioning and Extinction Paradigm in HumansReportar como inadecuado




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Learning to predict danger via associative learning processes is critical for adaptive behaviour. After successful extinction, persisting fear memories often emerge as returning fear. Investigation of return of fear phenomena, e.g. reinstatement, have only recently began and to date, many critical questions with respect to reinstatement in human populations remain unresolved. Few studies have separated experimental phases in time even though increasing evidence shows that allowing for passage of time and consolidation between experimental phases has a major impact on the results. In addition, studies have relied on a single psychophysiological dimension only SCRs-SCL or FPS which hampers comparability between different studies that showed both differential or generalized return of fear following a reinstatement manipulation. In 93 participants, we used a multimodal approach fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance responses, fear ratings to asses fear conditioning day 1, extinction day 2 as well as delayed memory recall and reinstatement day 8 in a paradigm that probed contextual and cued fear intra-individually. Our findings show persistence of conditioning and extinction memory over time and demonstrate that reinstated fear responses were qualitatively different between dependent variables subjective fear ratings, FPS, SCRs as well as between cued and contextual CSs. While only the arousal-related measurement SCRs showed increasing reactions following reinstatement to the cued CSs, no evidence of reinstatement was observed for the subjective ratings and fear-related measurement FPS. In contrast, for contextual CSs, reinstatement was evident as differential and generalized reinstatement in fear ratings as well as generally elevated physiological fear FPS and arousal SCRs related measurements to all contextual CSs generalized non-differential reinstatement. Returning fear after reinstatement likely depends on a variety of variables experimental design, dependent measurements and more systematic investigations with respect to critical determinants of reinstatement in humans are required.



Autor: Jan Haaker , Tina B. Lonsdorf , Alexandra Thanellou, Raffael Kalisch

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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