Electrical Stimuli Are Anti-Apoptotic in Skeletal Muscle via Extracellular ATP. Alteration of This Signal in Mdx Mice Is a Likely Cause of DystrophyReportar como inadecuado




Electrical Stimuli Are Anti-Apoptotic in Skeletal Muscle via Extracellular ATP. Alteration of This Signal in Mdx Mice Is a Likely Cause of Dystrophy - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 Panx1 channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 dihydropyridine receptors were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies.



Autor: Denisse Valladares, Gonzalo Almarza, Ariel Contreras, Mario Pavez, Sonja Buvinic, Enrique Jaimovich, Mariana Casas

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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