Impact of low-noise tyres on electric vehicle noise emissionReportar como inadecuado

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1 AIT - Austrian Institute of Technology Vienna 2 IFSTTAR-AME-LAE - Laboratoire d-Acoustique Environnementale

Abstract : The present document is the final report of Work Package 3 WP3 of the FOREVER project. The aim of this work package was to investigate potential and dedicated tyres currently used for electric vehicles and their noise output. While Work Package 2 WP2 takes care of the overall noise emitted by electric and hybrid vehicles, WP3 focusses on the noise emitted by the tyre-road interaction. This particular component of the overall emitted noise has been analysed for a long time, but now, the almost complete absence of motor noise makes measurements of this component also possible at lower speeds. A tyre selection has been performed in order to represent the current market of tyres for electric and hybrid vehicles. As shown by the literature study carried out within task 3.1, the selection of tyres for electric vehicles by car and tyre manufacturers is currently driven by fuel resp. energy efficiency requirements, relying on the rolling resistance performance of the tyre. No relation is currently present between rolling resistance and rolling noise. Ther is currently no evidence of a trend between the rolling resistance performance and the EU rolling noise labels. Using the selected tyres controlled pass-by measurements according to ISO 11819-1 have been performed, and the results have been analysed. As expected from the literature review, the relation between the overall maximum pass-by noise level in dBA and the logarithmic vehicle speed is linear, where the maximum contribution to overall noise is evidently coming from the rolling noise. The maximum spread between two investigated tyres never exceeded 3.6 dB for lower speeds 20-50 km-h and for speeds between 50 and 120 km-h the spread never exceeded 2.4 dB. General similarities in the spectral behaviour could be found in the sample of selected tyres, for example a higher slope of 2 kHz and a lower slope of 500 Hz components to speed in comparison to the most dominant 4kHz band. So the sample showed not only a changing spectral distribution over speed but also a common bahaviour for the tyre sample. The spectra at different speeds give a comparison of occurring peaks and showed the dominance of the 1 kHz octave band. Additionally, the case studies analysed the differences between the selected tyres in detail. Spectral components can rise differently with speed so the relative difference of the distribution changes. Nevertheless these differences have only little relevance on the overall levels. Investigations conducted on noise measurements at pass-by of the two electric vehicles successively fitted with nine different tyre sets eight sets on the first vehicle, one set on the second vehicle did not bring to light any relation between the exterior noise EU-label and the noise on actual road surfaces, in particular regarding tyre ranking. This has impacts on the concept of low-noise tyres since a possible requirement on the limit value based on the EU-label would not lead to select the quietest tyres on actual dense road surfaces and would probably not modify the roadside traffic noise. Tyres designed or selected by manufacturers for EVs have no effect on global rolling noise compared to conventional tyres. A wider set of EV-specific tyres is required to conclude on frequency differences possibly impacting the roadside traffic noise. On the basis of current knowledge, it turns out that rolling noise from light electric vehicles does not differ from conventional vehicles. Thus, for predictions of traffic noise according to the European assessment method, the use of the rolling noise component given in CNOSSOS-EU remains available without amendment for light electric vehicles. Only the propulsion noise component requires correction terms, as proposed in the final report of Work Package 2 of the FOREVER project.

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Autor: Sara Gasparoni - Martin Czuka - Reinhard Wehr - Marco Conter - Marie-Agnès Pallas - Michel Berengier -



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