Quantitative Reconstruction of Weaning Ages in Archaeological Human Populations Using Bone Collagen Nitrogen Isotope Ratios and Approximate Bayesian ComputationReportar como inadecuado




Quantitative Reconstruction of Weaning Ages in Archaeological Human Populations Using Bone Collagen Nitrogen Isotope Ratios and Approximate Bayesian Computation - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

Background

Nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen has been used to reconstruct the breastfeeding practices of archaeological human populations. However, weaning ages have been estimated subjectively because of a lack of both information on subadult bone collagen turnover rates and appropriate analytical models.

Methodology

Temporal changes in human subadult bone collagen turnover rates were estimated from data on tissue-level bone metabolism reported in previous studies. A model for reconstructing precise weaning ages was then developed using a framework of approximate Bayesian computation and incorporating the estimated turnover rates. The model is presented as a new open source R package, WARN Weaning Age Reconstruction with Nitrogen isotope analysis, which computes the age at the start and end of weaning, 15N-enrichment through maternal to infant tissue, and value of collagen synthesized entirely from weaning foods with their posterior probabilities. The model was applied to 39 previously reported Holocene skeletal populations from around the world, and the results were compared with weaning ages observed in ethnographic studies.

Conclusions

There were no significant differences in the age at the end of weaning between the archaeological 2.80±1.32 years and ethnographic populations. By comparing archaeological populations, it appears that weaning ages did not differ with the type of subsistence practiced i.e., hunting–gathering or not. Most of -enrichment 2.44±0.90‰ was consistent with biologically valid values. The nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults after the weaning process were lower than those of adults in most of the archaeological populations −0.48±0.61‰, and this depletion was greater in non-hunter–gatherer populations. Our results suggest that the breastfeeding period in humans had already been shortened by the early Holocene compared with those in extant great apes.



Autor: Takumi Tsutaya , Minoru Yoneda

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



DESCARGAR PDF




Documentos relacionados