Rotenone Directly Induces BV2 Cell Activation via the p38 MAPK PathwayReportar como inadecuado




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Parkinson’s disease PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although its pathogenesis is still unclear, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by environmental toxins, such as mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, plays a significant role in the disease process. The microglia in PD brains are highly activated, and inflammation is also an essential element in PD pathogenesis. However, the means by which these toxins activate microglia is still unclear. In the present study, we found that rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, could directly activate microglia via the nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby inducing significantly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. We further observed that rotenone induced caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β release, both of which are strictly dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK. The activation of p38 is associated with the presence of reactive oxygen species ROS produced by rotenone. Removal of these ROS abrogated the activation of the microglia. Therefore, our data suggest that the environmental toxin rotenone can directly activate microglia through the p38 MAPK pathway.



Autor: Feng Gao , Dong Chen, Qingsong Hu, Guanghui Wang

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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