Scaffolding Engagement in the Immersive t-MALL ClassroomReport as inadecuate

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This paper focuses on engagement dynamics among foreign language students in coping within an immersive pedagogy in a tablet mobile assisted language learning t-MALL classroom ecology. This qualitative action research was implemented with 24 second-year undergraduates majoring in French as a foreign language in a Malaysian university. The pedagogical implementation included a task-based learning approach delivered according to personalized, meaningful and learner- controlled learning principles. In accordance with social constructivist theory, the implementation emphasized student-centered and controlled learning. Scaffolding choices involved instructor as well as peer and technological support in an immersive blended learning environment sustained with Facebook groups. The learners’ engagement was investigated according to grounded theory’s procedures. The learners’ perceptions of classroom learning processes were triangulated with the instructors’ reflections with a three-level coding applied to the constant comparative method of analysis. Findings supported the use of t-MALL as sustaining engagement in immersive learning environments. The learner-centered and controlled approach allowed just-in time triadic scaffolding which contributed to raising active participation throughout the tasks. The implementation of t-MALL enhanced the students’ perceptions of the learning environment which unleashed their willingness-to-communicate in the target language. Reaching volition further contributed to enhancing the students’ motivational factors of engagement towards acquisition and self-regulated learning. The discussion imparts recommendations and best practices towards efficient scaffolding for engaged language learning in immersive and participatory environments.


Action Research, Classroom Engagement, Language Acquisition, Tablet Computers, MALL

Cite this paper

Gabarre, C. , Gabarre, S. , Din, R. , Shah, P. and Karim, A. 2016 Scaffolding Engagement in the Immersive t-MALL Classroom. Creative Education, 7, 349-363. doi: 10.4236-ce.2016.72035.

Author: Cécile Gabarre1,2, Serge Gabarre1,2, Rosseni Din2, Parilah Shah2, Aidah Abdul Karim2



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