Effect of a Malaria Control Program on the Prevalence of Malaria, Fever and Anaemia in Children under Five Years in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana: A Comparative Analysis of Cross-Sectional SurveysReportar como inadecuado




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Background: Malaria andanaemia continue to adversely impact the health of children in Ghana. Hohoe isan area of intense and prolonged, seasonal malaria transmission. In 2006,malaria control programme activities which provided In-secticide TreatedBed-Nets ITNs to resident children under five years and ArtemisininCombination Therapies ACTs for the management of malaria were introduced intothe Hohoe Municipality. Before the introduction of the control programme,baseline surveys were carried out in communities in the Hohoe municipality todetermine the prevalence of malaria, fever, anaemia, malaria parasite density,gametocytaemia and ITN ownership and use in June and November 2006 ahead of theintervention programme. Similar surveys were conducted in 2010 after theintervention to assess changes in the earlier indicators in the samecommunities. This report presents an evaluation of the intervention bycomparing findings before and after the malaria control interventions. Methods:In 2010, two community-based surveys were carried out in thirty communitiesamong children aged five years and below. The first one was at the beginning ofthe rainy and high malaria transmission season in June and the other was inNovember at the end of the rainy season. The surveys were to determine theprevalence of malaria, fever, anaemia and ITN ownership, use and effectivenessamong children less than 5 years. Data were collected in the form of interviewsusing questionnaire and collection of biological samples. Findings werecompared to those similar surveys conducted in the same communities and agegroups in 2006. Pr-testi was used to analyze two sample tests for proportionsand t-test was used for means. Findings: Malaria prevalence decreased by 20%9.0% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.0.40, fever decreased by 47.8% 2.3% vs. 1.2%; p =0.008 and anaemia decreased by 32.9% 7.8% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.002. ITN ownershipincreased by 67.9% 20.8% vs. 64.8%; p < 0.001, ITN use increased by 64.2%15.1% vs. 42.2%; p < 0.001 and ITN effectiveness increased by 41.7% 20.0%vs. 34.3%; p < 0.001. The proportion of children with high densityparasitaemia reduced by 17.9% 2.8% vs. 2.3%; p = 0.223. Gameto-cytaemiadecreased by 82.5% 0.8% vs. 0.14%; p = 0.002. Similarly data comparing 2006and 2010 post-rainy season showed that malaria prevalence decreased by 16.8%40.4% vs. 33.6%; p < 0.001, fever decreased by 14% 5.0% vs. 4.3%; p = 0.347and anaemia decreased by 64.2% 12% vs. 4.3%; p < 0.001. The proportion ofchildren with high density parasitaemia also reduced by 69.5% 10.5% vs. 3.2%;p < 0.001 and gametocytaemia decreased by 78.5% 0.8% vs. 0.17%; p =0.008. Conclusion: This study suggested that there was an association betweenthe current intervention and reduction in the prevalence of malaria, fever andanaemia. High parasite density and gametocytaemia prevalence have alsosignificantly reduced over the five years of the introduction of the controlmeasures. There has also been a significant increase in the ownership and useof ITNs.

KEYWORDS

Malaria, Parasitaemia, Mean Parasite Density, Anaemia, Fever, Malaria Transmission, Gametocytaemia, Insecticide Treated BedNets, Children under Five Years, Hohoe Municipality, Ghana

Cite this paper

Kweku, M. , Appiah, E. , Takramah, W. , Enuameh, Y. , Norman, I. and Binka, F. 2015 Effect of a Malaria Control Program on the Prevalence of Malaria, Fever and Anaemia in Children under Five Years in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana: A Comparative Analysis of Cross-Sectional Surveys. Advances in Infectious Diseases, 5, 180-188. doi: 10.4236-aid.2015.54023.





Autor: Margaret Kweku1*, Eric Kwaku Appiah2, Wisdom Takramah1, Yeetey Enuameh1, Ishmael Norman1,3, Fred Binka4

Fuente: http://www.scirp.org/



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