Deficiency of Vitamin D in HIV Infected Patients and Its Effect on Some of the Immunological ParametersReport as inadecuate

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Today the HIV infection is a chronicdisease with significantly longer duration of the life of the patients.Problems of pressing interest are the persistent immune activation and chronicinflammation during the treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Taking thisinto account, different factors which could affect the immune system and theprogress of the HIV infection are being researched. Vitamin D 25OHD is oneof those factors if we take note of its effect on the innate and acquiredimmunity. The aim of this study was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D vitamin Dstatus in one part of the Bulgarian HIV-infected adult population and to assessconnection between 25-hydroxyvitamin D vitamin D status and plasma levelsof some major cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The studyincludes 145 HIV-positive patients, who are being monitored in the Departmentfor acquired immune deficiency at Specialized Hospital for Infectious andParasitic Diseases -Proff. Ivan Kirov-—Sofia. From all of the monitoredpatients only in 15% of the tested we found normal 25OHD serum levels, and in12% of the patients we found deficiency. The largest group is that of patientswith insufficiency of vitamin D. We didn’t discovered significant difference inthe 25OHD average values between men and women. There were no significantdifferences in the average values of the 25OHD serum levels when dividing thepatients according to their antiretroviral therapy, but after separating thepatients by gender, we found that the untreated women had average values of25OHD higher than that of the women treated with EFV. On the next stage ofthe survey on the 60 HIV-infected patients, who are from the first testedgroup, we additionally defined the cytokine profile. Our results suggests thatincreasing 25OHD deficiency worsens the damaging of the cellular immuneresponse. The lower levels of vitamin Dare associated with increased levels ofIL-6, decreased levels of IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α. There’s active immuneinflammation when there are reduced 25OHD serum levels and it leads tostimulated secretion of the regulatory cytokines and suppression of the Th1antiviral response. The phase of advanced 25OHD deficiency is characterizedby parallel depletion of the regulatory and effecter capabilities of CD4lymphocytes. The recovery of the CD4 lymphocyte pool is difficult because ofthe lower than average 25OHD serum levels, regardless of the conductedantiretroviral therapy.


HIV, Vitamin D, Deficiency, Cytokines, Immune Activation

Cite this paper

Yancheva, N. , Elenkov, I. , Tchervenyakova, T. , Gabarska, I. , Kirilov, G. , Nikolova, M. and Alexandrova, M. 2015 Deficiency of Vitamin D in HIV Infected Patients and Its Effect on Some of the Immunological Parameters. World Journal of AIDS, 5, 182-188. doi: 10.4236-wja.2015.53021.

Author: Nina Yancheva1, Ivaylo Elenkov1, Tatyana Tchervenyakova1, Ivanka Gabarska1, Georgi Kirilov2, Maria Nikolova3, Marina Alexandrova3



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