Ownership or Taking Action: Which Is More Important for HappinessReport as inadecuate

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In two studies 2010 and 2011, more than2000 respondents living in Japan were asked whether they gained more happinessfrom ownership or from taking action. In the 2010 study, many more individualspreferred taking action to ownership; this preference was greater in women thanin men and in older people than in younger people. Reasons for this preferencewere plainly ex-pressed in respondents’ free writing, and a categoricaldistinction between ownership and taking action was readily recognized andwidely shared. Social desirability concerns probably did not play a role inresponses. In the 2011 study, many individuals valued action more thanownership as like as the 2010 study. The preference for taking action overownership was greater in women than in men, in older people than in youngerpeople, and in people with higher levels of education than in people with lowerlevels of education. There was no relationship with annual income. Thecorrelations with gender and level of education were similar to results ofcomparable studies conducted in the USA, although in the US studies,experiential purchases were evaluated, rather than taking action; however, thecorrelation with age was uncertain in the US studies. Further studies with USrespondents will be necessary to examine this correlation. Possible reasons whymany more people preferred happiness gained from taking action to happinessexperienced from ownership were discussed.


Ownership, Taking Action, More Important for Happiness

Cite this paper

Hayase, K. & Ura, M. 2015. Ownership or Taking Action: Which Is More Important for Happiness?. Psychology, 6, 734-751. doi: 10.4236-psych.2015.66072.

Author: Kohji Hayase1*, Mitsuhiro Ura2

Source: http://www.scirp.org/


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