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Today we live in a world of HydrocarbonEnergy Carriers, where Carbon is always used as a Carrier for Hydrogen 1Biomass CH1.44O0.66 or C6H12O6; 2 Natural Gas NG CH4; 3 Water Gas C+H2O;4 Gasoline C6H12, C7H18, C8H18, etc.; 5 Kerosene C17H36, C18H38, C19H40, C20H42,C21H44, C22H46, etc. and; 6 Crude Oil. The Carbon aggregates are all storableand have worthwhile, logistically manageable energy densities. But wheneverrecovering Energy from the Carbon molarities, CO2 gets emitted into theatmosphere, while separate use of Hydrogen Energy contents carried by theCarbon moieties would just generate water vapor. Hydrogen is also the mostimportant intermediary in Refineries, hydrogenating lower grade Hydrocarbonsinto higher potencies, or for removing Sulfur by the formation of HydrogenSulfur, that can be dissociated after its segregation from the Hydrocarbonproducts. But most of the internal Hydrogen yields in Refineries today is usedfor onsite production of Ammonia as a basis for Energy fertilizers in highperformance agriculture. Because Hydrogen is awkward to store and transport, mostof it is currently used captive within large size centralized plants as areactant for producing Hydrocarbon energy carriers, using the Carbon as acarrier for the Hydrogen moieties, to then be distributed over big enough areasfor consumption of the such large scale plants’ volumes. With recently provenachievements of Hydrogen production from excess Wind & Solar Power byelectrolysis, Hydrogen could become available in abundant quantities, to bedistributed locally within the coverage area of the transmission grid such Wind& Solar installations are feeding into. In combination with Carbon as areactant such abundant Hydrogen could also be synthesized into HydrocarbonEnergy Carriers and substitute fossil commodities.


Atmospheric Carbon, Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Metabolism, Carbon Re-Use, Chemical Energy Content, Controlled Microbial Composting, Energy Carriers, Fossil Substitute Commodities, Intermediaries, Heating Value, Hybrid Power Plant, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Organic Waste Valorization, Photosynthesis, Productivity, Refineries

Cite this paper

Petters, S. and Tse, K. 2015 Clean Coal & High Carbon Efficiency Energy Engineering. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 3, 348-355. doi: 10.4236-jpee.2015.34047.

Autor: Stefan Petters1,2, Kalvin Tse2



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