Intrinsic mechanical properties and strengthening methods in inorganic crystalline materialsReportar como inadecuado

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Abstract : The paper deals with strength and fracture in metals, ceramics and intermetallic compounds. The emphasis is on the interrelation between microstructure and macroscopic behavior and how the concepts for alloy design are mirroring this interrelationship. The three materials classes are distinguished by the physical nature of the atomic bonding forces. In metals metallic bonding predominates which causes high ductility but poor strength. Accordingly material development concentrates on production of microstructures which optimize the yield strength without unacceptable loss in ductility. In ceramics covalent bonding prevails which results in high hardness and high elastic stiffness but at the same time extreme brittleness. Contrary to the metal-ease material development aims at a kind of pseudo ductility in order to rise the fracture toughness to sufficiently high levels. In intermetallic phases the atomic bonds are a mixture of metallic and covalent bonding where depending on the alloying system the balance between the two contributions may be quite different. Accordingly the properties of intermetallics are in the range between metals and ceramics. By a variety of microstructural measures their properties can be changed in direction. either towards metallic or ceramic behavior. General rules for alloy design are not available, rather every system demands very specific experience since properties depend to a considerable part on intrinsic properties of lattice defects such as dislocations, antiphase boundaries, stacking faults and grain boundaries.

Autor: H. Mecking Ch. Hartig J. Seeger



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