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Esophagealcancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and remains one of the leastsurvivable cancers. Esophageal cancers show wide variations in incidence indifferent population, suggesting that environmental or lifestyle risk factorscould be controlled to reduce risk of these diseases. There are two major histopathologictypes squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of esophageal epithelialmalignancy. Recently, the rate of adenocarcinoma is increasing in developedcountries: in the United States, 50% or more is adenocarcinoma and, in about70%, the increase especially in a white male serves as adenocarcinoma. Esophagealadenocarcinoma develops in the lower esophagus. In contrast, in Japan, theincrease in adenocarcinoma is not clear and most 90% of esophageal cancersare squamous cell carcinoma. Such squamous cell carcinoma occurs onto the middlepart esophagus mostly, and 60% or more of the whole esophagus cancer also developsin the middle and upper parts. These differences also influence the treatmentresults. The scope of this article is to discuss carcinogenesis in theesophagus by giving an overview about its histopathological characteristics andmolecular mechanisms.


Esophageal Neoplasms, Preneoplastic Lesions, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Risk Factor

Cite this paper

Watanabe, N. , Shimizu, M. , Kochi, T. , Shirakami, Y. and Tanaka, T. 2014 Esophageal Carcinogenesis. Open Journal of Pathology, 4, 151-170. doi: 10.4236-ojpathology.2014.44021.

Autor: Naoki Watanabe1, Masahito Shimizu2, Takahiro Kochi2, Yohei Shirakami2, Takuji Tanaka1,3*



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