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Livestock rearing is one of the majoroccupations in India and is making significant contribution to the country GDP.The regional and seasonal variations in the teperature and rainfalldistribution have been the major factors influencing the economy of a region.It is a matter of serious concern that out of 11 districts of central India, 9districts are showing increasing trend in maximum temperature with a rate of0.01°C to 0.15°C-year. A significant long-term decreasing trend Slope = -4.26was found in annual rainfall series at Jhansi. At Jhansi, moderate to severedrought occurs once in five years. But in the last decade, 7 years experiencedmoderate to disastrous drought in Jhansi region, wherein rainfall deficiencyranged between 40% and 60% from normal value. Of special mention was the year,2006, which experienced a worst drought ever recorded for this region. Studiesrelated to crop simulation model was carried out for fodder sorghum and itsapplication for agronomic management and assessing the impact of climatechange. Crop modeling studies on forage sorghum C4 and cowpea C3showed increased dry matter biomass by 3% in sorghum but more prominent incowpea by 46% under elevated CO2 from 330 ppm to 770 ppm. Theinteraction study of enhanced CO2 and temperature showed prominentnegative impact on yields of both the crops. Evapotranspiration and cropcoefficient Kc of several fodder crops i.e. berseem,lucerne, oat, sorghum, teosinte, maize + cowpea, guinea + berseem were workedout. In berseem, the highest Kc 1.81 was found during 2nd cutting followed by 3rd and 4th cuts. Estimates onirrigation scheduling for the guinea grass + berseem showed that the croppingsystem requires 7 irrigations at an interval ranging from 13 to 30 days tofulfill the 567.6 mm of water per season as net irrigation under mar soil black type whose actual water holding capacity AWHC is 175 mm.Similarly, if the cropping system is grown under kabar AHWC = 140 mmsoil, then it requires nine irrigation with a total water requirement of 591.5 mmat an interval ranging from 10 to 24 days. For integrated pest management IPMscheme of lucerne, degree day based model was developed to monitor the lucerneweevil population in central region.

KEYWORDS

Temperature; Rainfall; Trend; Drought; Crop Simulation Model; Climate Change; Validation; Calibiration; Sensitivity Analysis; Climate Risk Management; Evapotranspiration; Crop Coefficient; Degree-Day Model and Growth Models

Cite this paper

S. Rai, P. Ghosh, S. Kumar and J. Singh -Research in Agrometeorolgy on Fodder Crops in Central India—An Overview,- Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 78-91. doi: 10.4236-acs.2014.41011.





Autor: Suchit K. Rai, Probir K. Ghosh, Sunil Kumar, Jitendra B. Singh

Fuente: http://www.scirp.org/



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