Reconstitution of Mitochondria Derived Vesicle Formation Demonstrates Selective Enrichment of Oxidized CargoReport as inadecuate

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The mechanisms that ensure the removal of damaged mitochondrial proteins and lipids are critical for the health of the cell, and errors in these pathways are implicated in numerous degenerative diseases. We recently uncovered a new pathway for the selective removal of proteins mediated by mitochondrial derived vesicular carriers MDVs that transit to the lysosome. However, it was not determined whether these vesicles were selectively enriched for oxidized, or damaged proteins, and the extent to which the complexes of the electron transport chain and the mtDNA-containing nucloids may have been incorporated. In this study, we have developed a cell-free mitochondrial budding reaction in vitro in order to better dissect the pathway. Our data confirm that MDVs are stimulated upon various forms of mitochondrial stress, and the vesicles incorporated quantitative amounts of cargo, whose identity depended upon the nature of the stress. Under the conditions examined, MDVs did not incorporate complexes I and V, nor were any nucleoids present, demonstrating the specificity of cargo incorporation. Stress-induced MDVs are selectively enriched for oxidized proteins, suggesting that conformational changes induced by oxidation may initiate their incorporation into the vesicles. Ultrastructural analyses of MDVs isolated on sucrose flotation gradients revealed the formation of both single and double membranes vesicles of unique densities and uniform diameter. This work provides a framework for a reductionist approach towards a detailed examination of the mechanisms of MDV formation and cargo incorporation, and supports the emerging concept that MDVs are critical contributors to mitochondrial quality control.

Author: Vincent Soubannier, Peter Rippstein, Brett A. Kaufman, Eric A. Shoubridge, Heidi M. McBride



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