A Working Memory Deficit among Dyslexic Readers with No Phonological Impairment as Measured Using the N-Back Task: An fNIR StudyReportar como inadecuado

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Data indicated that dyslexic individuals exhibited difficulties on tasks involving Working Memory WM. Previous studies have suggested that these deficits stem from impaired processing in the Phonological Loop PL. The PL impairment was connected to poor phonological processing. However, recent data has pointed to the Central Executive CE system as another source of WM deficit in dyslexic readers. This opened a debate whether the WM deficit stems solely from PL or can also be seen as an outcome of poor CE processing. In an attempt to verify this question, the current study compared adult skilled and compensated dyslexic readers with no impairment of phonological skills. The participants’ PL and CE processing were tested by using the fNIR device attached to the frontal lobe and measured the changes in brain oxygen values when performing N-back task. As it was previously suggested, the N = 0 represented PL and N = 1 to 3 represent CE processing. It was hypothesized that dyslexic readers who show non-impaired phonological skills will exhibit deficits mainly in the CE subsystem and to a lesser extent in the PL. Results indicated that the two reading level groups did not differ in their accuracy and reaction times in any of the N-Back conditions. However, the dyslexic readers demonstrated significant lower maximum oxyHb values in the upper left frontal lobe, mainly caused due to a significant lower activity under the N = 1 condition. Significant task effects were found in the medial left hemisphere, and the high medial right hemisphere. In addition, significant correlations between fNIR-features, reading performance and speed of processing were found. The higher oxyHb values, the better reading and speed of processing performance obtained. The results of the current study support the hypothesis that at least for the group of dyslexics with non-impaired PL, WM deficit stems from poor CE activity.

Autor: Itamar Sela , Meltem Izzetoglu, Kurtulus Izzetoglu, Banu Onaral

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/


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