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We conducted experiments of oversensing generation of pacemaker PM and X-irradiation direction dependency of PM, and examined the oversensing suppression method, using 8 different types of PMs. It was found out from this experiment that oversensing would occur when some conditions X-irradiation direction, X-irradiation intensity are met. Oversensing occurred with the most low irradiation conditions kV × mA when PM was irradiated at 90° vertically to C-MOS; Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. The acuter the angle of irradiation is α > 90° < α, the higher the irradiation conditions kV × mA at which oversensing start to occur. In plain X-ray photography, oversensing was confirmed under the irradiation conditions of cervical spine, thoracic spine, lateral thoracic spine, rib, shoulder joint, collarbone, humerus, and chest.Once the irradiation angle and irradiation conditions kV × mA are available, oversensing is predictable to some extent. Our findings will help to predict oversensing generation of plain X-ray photography and suppress oversensing. Oversensing can be suppressed in most of the radiography by lowering tube current to 100 mA, but a 1.0 mm High-Density Tungsten Sheet must be put on PM in high tube voltage radiography.


Oversensing; Pacemaker; C-MOS; General X-Ray Equipment for Diagnosis

Cite this paper

N. Akiba, M. Takeda, G. Nakaya, O. Nakamura, J. Matsumoto, K. Ito, M. Shimada and K. Yoshikawa -Predicting and Suppressing Oversensing of a Pacemaker in Plain X-Ray Photography,- Open Journal of Radiology, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 128-133. doi: 10.4236-ojrad.2012.24024.

Autor: Norihiko Akiba, Masashi Takeda, Giichiro Nakaya, Osamu Nakamura, Joel Matsumoto, Kyoichi Ito, Morio Shimada, Kohki Yoshikawa



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