Local Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Increases in the Microcirculation during Leukocytes-Endothelial Cell InteractionsReportar como inadecuado




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Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte activation are important factors for vascular diseases including nephropathy, retinopathy and angiopathy. In addition, endothelial cell dysfunction is reported in vascular disease condition. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by increased superoxide O2•− production from endothelium and reduction in NO bioavailability. Experimental studies have suggested a possible role for leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the vessel NO and peroxynitrite levels and their role in vascular disorders in the arterial side of microcirculation. However, anti-adhesion therapies for preventing leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction related vascular disorders showed limited success. The endothelial dysfunction related changes in vessel NO and peroxynitrite levels, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and leukocyte activation are not completely understood in vascular disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial dysfunction extent, leukocyte-endothelial interaction, leukocyte activation and superoxide dismutase therapy on the transport and interactions of NO, O2•− and peroxynitrite in the microcirculation. We developed a biotransport model of NO, O2•− and peroxynitrite in the arteriolar microcirculation and incorporated leukocytes-endothelial cell interactions. The concentration profiles of NO, O2•− and peroxynitrite within blood vessel and leukocytes are presented at multiple levels of endothelial oxidative stress with leukocyte activation and increased superoxide dismutase accounted for in certain cases. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of NO decreased ∼0.6 fold, O2•− increased ∼27 fold and peroxynitrite increased ∼30 fold in the endothelial and smooth muscle region in severe oxidative stress condition as compared to that of normal physiologic conditions. The results show that the onset of endothelial oxidative stress can cause an increase in O2•− and peroxynitrite concentration in the lumen. The increased O2•− and peroxynitrite can cause leukocytes priming through peroxynitrite and leukocytes activation through secondary stimuli of O2•− in bloodstream without endothelial interaction. This finding supports that leukocyte rolling-adhesion and activation are independent events.



Autor: Saptarshi Kar , Mahendra Kavdia

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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