How Noisy Does a Noisy Miner Have to Be Amplitude Adjustments of Alarm Calls in an Avian Urban ‘Adapter’Reportar como inadecuado




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Background

Urban environments generate constant loud noise, which creates a formidable challenge for many animals relying on acoustic communication. Some birds make vocal adjustments that reduce auditory masking by altering, for example, the frequency kHz or timing of vocalizations. Another adjustment, well documented for birds under laboratory and natural field conditions, is a noise level-dependent change in sound signal amplitude the ‘Lombard effect’. To date, however, field research on amplitude adjustments in urban environments has focused exclusively on bird song.

Methods

We investigated amplitude regulation of alarm calls using, as our model, a successful urban ‘adapter’ species, the Noisy miner, Manorina melanocephala. We compared several different alarm calls under contrasting noise conditions.

Results

Individuals at noisier locations arterial roads alarm called significantly more loudly than those at quieter locations residential streets. Other mechanisms known to improve sound signal transmission in ‘noise’, namely use of higher perches and in-flight calling, did not differ between site types. Intriguingly, the observed preferential use of different alarm calls by Noisy miners inhabiting arterial roads and residential streets was unlikely to have constituted a vocal modification made in response to sound-masking in the urban environment because the calls involved fell within the main frequency range of background anthropogenic noise.

Conclusions

The results of our study suggest that a species, which has the ability to adjust the amplitude of its signals, might have a ‘natural’ advantage in noisy urban environments.



Autor: Hélène Lowry , Alan Lill, Bob B. M. Wong

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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