Regulation of CCL2 Expression by an Upstream TALE Homeodomain Protein-Binding Site That Synergizes with the Site Created by the A-2578G SNPReportar como inadecuado




Regulation of CCL2 Expression by an Upstream TALE Homeodomain Protein-Binding Site That Synergizes with the Site Created by the A-2578G SNP - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

CC Chemokine Ligand 2 CCL2 is a potent chemoattractant produced by macrophages and activated astrocytes during periods of inflammation within the central nervous system. Increased CCL2 expression is correlated with disease progression and severity, as observed in pulmonary tuberculosis, HCV-related liver disease, and HIV-associated dementia. The CCL2 distal promoter contains an A-G polymorphism at position -2578 and the homozygous -2578 G-G genotype is associated with increased CCL2 production and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic differences in CCL2 expression are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the -2578 G polymorphism creates a TALE homeodomain protein binding site TALE binding site for PREP1-PBX2 transcription factors. In this study, we identified the presence of an additional TALE binding site 22 bp upstream of the site created by the -2578 G polymorphism and demonstrated the synergistic effects of the two sites on the activation of the CCL2 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation ChIP assays, we demonstrated increased binding of the TALE proteins PREP1 and PBX2 to the -2578 G allele, and binding of IRF1 to both the A and G alleles. The presence of TALE binding sites that form inverted repeats within the -2578 G allele results in increased transcriptional activation of the CCL2 distal promoter while the presence of only the upstream TALE binding site within the -2578 A allele exerts repression of promoter activity.



Autor: Stephen H. Page, Edward K. Wright Jr, Lucio Gama, Janice E. Clements

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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