Periodic Table of Virus Capsids: Implications for Natural Selection and DesignReport as inadecuate

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For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies.

Principal Findings

This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs or those capsids with the lowest -hexamer complexity-, are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc. that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus.


Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work especially the periodic table provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

Author: Ranjan V. Mannige , Charles L. Brooks III



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