Convergence of IL-1β and VDR Activation Pathways in Human TLR2-1-Induced Antimicrobial ResponsesReportar como inadecuado




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Antimicrobial effector mechanisms are central to the function of the innate immune response in host defense against microbial pathogens. In humans, activation of Toll-like receptor 2-1 TLR2-1 on monocytes induces a vitamin D dependent antimicrobial activity against intracellular mycobacteria. Here, we report that TLR activation of monocytes triggers induction of the defensin beta 4 gene DEFB4, requiring convergence of the IL-1β and vitamin D receptor VDR pathways. TLR2-1 activation triggered IL-1β activity, involving the upregulation of both IL-1β and IL-1 receptor, and downregulation of the IL-1 receptor antagonist. TLR2-1L induction of IL-1β was required for upregulation of DEFB4, but not cathelicidin, whereas VDR activation was required for expression of both antimicrobial genes. The differential requirements for induction of DEFB4 and cathelicidin were reflected by differences in their respective promoter regions; the DEFB4 promoter had one vitamin D response element VDRE and two NF-κB sites, whereas the cathelicidin promoter had three VDREs and no NF-κB sites. Transfection of NF-κB into primary monocytes synergized with 1,25D3 in the induction of DEFB4 expression. Knockdown of either DEFB4 or cathelicidin in primary monocytes resulted in the loss of TLR2-1-mediated antimicrobial activity against intracellular mycobacteria. Therefore, these data identify a novel mechanism of host defense requiring the induction of IL-1β in synergy with vitamin D activation, for the TLR-induced antimicrobial pathway against an intracellular pathogen.



Autor: Philip T. Liu , Mirjam Schenk, Valencia P. Walker, Paul W. Dempsey, Melissa Kanchanapoomi, Matthew Wheelwright, Aria Vazirnia, Xi

Fuente: http://plos.srce.hr/



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