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1

Center for Health, Nutrition and Food, National Institute of Public Health in Prague, Palackeho 3a, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic

2

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Abstract Ochratoxin A OTA is a very important mycotoxin, and its research is focused right now on the new findings of OTA, like being a complete carcinogen, information about OTA producers and new exposure sources of OTA. Citrinin CIT is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity. Both additive and synergistic effects have been described in combination with OTA. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Aspergillus Section Circumdati Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, A. steynii and Aspergillus Section Nigri Aspergillus carbonarius, A. foetidus, A. lacticoffeatus, A. niger, A. sclerotioniger, A. tubingensis, mostly in subtropical and tropical areas. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum, notably in temperate and colder zones. CIT is produced in foodstuffs by Monascus species Monascus purpureus, M. ruber and Penicillium species Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. radicicola, P. verrucosum. OTA was frequently found in foodstuffs of both plant origin e.g., cereal products, coffee, vegetable, liquorice, raisins, wine and animal origin e.g., pork-poultry. CIT was also found in foodstuffs of vegetable origin e.g., cereals, pomaceous fruits, black olive, roasted nuts, spices, food supplements based on rice fermented with red microfungi Monascus purpureus and in foodstuffs of animal origin e.g., cheese. View Full-Text

Keywords: ochratoxin A; citrinin; producers; microfungi; dietary sources; foods ochratoxin A; citrinin; producers; microfungi; dietary sources; foods





Autor: Vladimir Ostry 1,* , Frantisek Malir 2 and Jiri Ruprich 1

Fuente: http://mdpi.com/



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