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Department of Immunology, Integrated Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA





Abstract Staphylococcal enterotoxin B SEB and related bacterial toxins cause diseases in humans and laboratory animals ranging from food poisoning, acute lung injury to toxic shock. These superantigens bind directly to the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and specific Vβ regions of T-cell receptors TCR, resulting in rapid hyper-activation of the host immune system. In addition to TCR and co-stimulatory signals, proinflammatory mediators activate signaling pathways culminating in cell-stress response, activation of NFκB and mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR. This article presents a concise review of superantigen-activated signaling pathways and focuses on the therapeutic challenges against bacterial superantigens. View Full-Text

Keywords: staphylococcal superantigens; SEB; cytokine signaling; PI3K-mTOR; NFκB; FDA-approved drugs staphylococcal superantigens; SEB; cytokine signaling; PI3K-mTOR; NFκB; FDA-approved drugs





Autor: Teresa Krakauer

Fuente: http://mdpi.com/



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