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Abstract: Massive stars, supernovae SNe, and long-duration gamma-ray bursts GRBshave a huge impact on their environment. Despite their importance, acomprehensive knowledge of which massive stars produce which SN-GRB is hithertolacking. We present a brief overview about our knowledge of mass loss in theHertzsprung-Russell Diagram HRD covering evolutionary phases of the OB mainsequence, the unstable Luminous Blue Variable LBV stage, and the Wolf-RayetWR phase. Despite the fact that metals produced by ``self-enrichment in WRatmospheres exceed the initial - host galaxy - metallicity, by orders ofmagnitude, a particularly strong dependence of the mass-loss rate on theinitial metallicity is found for WR stars at sub-solar metallicities 1-10 -1-100 solar. This provides a significant boost to the collapsar model forGRBs, as it may present a viable mechanism to prevent the loss of angularmomentum by stellar winds at low metallicity, whilst strong Galactic WR windsmay inhibit GRBs occurring at solar metallicities. Furthermore, we discussrecently reported quasi-sinusoidal modulations in the radio lightcurves of SNe2001ig and 2003bg. We show that both the sinusoidal behaviour and therecurrence timescale of these modulations are consistent with the predictedmass-loss behaviour of LBVs, and we suggest LBVs may be the progenitors of somecore-collapse SNe.



Author: Jorick S. Vink, Rubina Kotak

Source: https://arxiv.org/







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