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1

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea

2

Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea





*

Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editors: Steffen Leonhardt and Daniel Teichmann

Abstract We proposed new electrodes that are applicable for electrocardiogram ECG monitoring under freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions. Our proposed electrodes are made of graphite pencil lead GPL, a general-purpose writing pencil. We have fabricated two types of electrode: a pencil lead solid type PLS electrode and a pencil lead powder type PLP electrode. In order to assess the qualities of the PLS and PLP electrodes, we compared their performance with that of a commercial Ag-AgCl electrode, under a total of seven different conditions: dry, freshwater immersion with-without movement, post-freshwater wet condition, saltwater immersion with-without movement, and post-saltwater wet condition. In both dry and post-freshwater wet conditions, all ECG-recorded PQRST waves were clearly discernible, with all types of electrodes, Ag-AgCl, PLS, and PLP. On the other hand, under the freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions with-without movement, as well as post-saltwater wet conditions, we found that the proposed PLS and PLP electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality, with significant statistical differences compared with the quality provided by Ag-AgCl electrodes. View Full-Text

Keywords: graphite; pencil lead; carbon; ECG electrode; dry electrode; ECG monitoring; underwater; freshwater; saltwater graphite; pencil lead; carbon; ECG electrode; dry electrode; ECG monitoring; underwater; freshwater; saltwater





Autor: Tharoeun Thap 1, Kwon-Ha Yoon 2,* and Jinseok Lee 1,*

Fuente: http://mdpi.com/



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