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1

Department of Plant Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany

2

Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T2N2, Canada





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Abstract Allicin diallylthiosulfinate is a defence molecule from garlic Allium sativum L. with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin S-allylcysteine sulfoxide in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will be presented in this review. Being a thiosulfinate, allicin is a reactive sulfur species RSS and undergoes a redox-reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins that is thought to be essential for its biological activity. Allicin is physiologically active in microbial, plant and mammalian cells. In a dose-dependent manner allicin can inhibit the proliferation of both bacteria and fungi or kill cells outright, including antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. Furthermore, in mammalian cell lines, including cancer cells, allicin induces cell-death and inhibits cell proliferation. In plants allicin inhibits seed germination and attenuates root-development. The majority of allicin’s effects are believed to be mediated via redox-dependent mechanisms. In sub-lethal concentrations, allicin has a variety of health-promoting properties, for example cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering effects that are advantageous for the cardio-vascular system. Clearly, allicin has wide-ranging and interesting applications in medicine and green agriculture, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Taken together, allicin is a fascinating biologically active compound whose properties are a direct consequence of the molecule’s chemistry. View Full-Text

Keywords: garlic Allium sativum; reactive sulfur species; apoptosis; redox; antimicrobial; cancer; root growth garlic Allium sativum; reactive sulfur species; apoptosis; redox; antimicrobial; cancer; root growth





Autor: Jan Borlinghaus 1, Frank Albrecht 1, Martin C. H. Gruhlke 1, Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu 2 and Alan J. Slusarenko 1,*

Fuente: http://mdpi.com/



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