γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer CellsReport as inadecuate




γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

1

UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute UMBI, UKM Medical Center, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Malaysia

2

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Malaysia





*

Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: Isabel Ferreira

Abstract Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol γ-T3 and 6-gingerol 6G in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 0–150 µg-mL and 6G 0–300 µg-mL on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg-mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg-mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 CI: 0.89 ± 0.02, and SW837 CI: 0.79 ± 0.10 apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 p < 0.05 after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells. View Full-Text

Keywords: γ-tocotrienol γ-T3; 6-gingerol 6G; synergistic; HT-29; SW837 human colorectal cancer cells γ-tocotrienol γ-T3; 6-gingerol 6G; synergistic; HT-29; SW837 human colorectal cancer cells





Author: Khairunnisa Md Yusof 1,* , Suzana Makpol 2, Rahman Jamal 1, Roslan Harun 1, Norfilza Mokhtar 1 and Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah 1,2,*

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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