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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia


Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Persons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK


Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Ronan Batista

Abstract This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene 1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia 39.3%, C. grandis 81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa 94.0%, while sabinene 19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix 36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal 20 61.7%–72.5%, linalool 18 56.5%, and hedycaryol 23 19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species. View Full-Text

Keywords: Citrus; Rutaceae; essential oils; extraction; composition; bioactivities Citrus; Rutaceae; essential oils; extraction; composition; bioactivities

Autor: Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman 1, Muhammad Aizam Hassan 1, Lutfun Nahar 2, Norazah Basar 1,* , Shajarahtunnur Jamil 1 and Satyajit D. Sarker 2



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