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1

Division of Physical Education, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai 200433, China

2

Department of Public Health Sciences, Clemson Univistry, Clemson, SC 29634, USA

3

Department of Philosophy and Religion, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou

Abstract Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression verbal, anger and hostility has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale MAAS and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample N = 286, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample N = 512, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults. View Full-Text

Keywords: mindfulness; aggression; younger adults; adolescents; college; China mindfulness; aggression; younger adults; adolescents; college; China





Autor: Yu Gao 1, Lu Shi 2,* , Kelly C. Smith 3, Jeffery B. Kingree 2 and Martie Thompson 2

Fuente: http://mdpi.com/



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