Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature ReviewReportar como inadecuado




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1

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada

2

Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait

3

The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi, UAE





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: George Tsatsaronis

Abstract This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and-or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment. View Full-Text

Keywords: start-up; shut-down; emissions; dynamic; non-steady state start-up; shut-down; emissions; dynamic; non-steady state





Autor: Juwairia Obaid 1, Ashraf Ramadan 2,* , Ali Elkamel 1,3 and William Anderson 1

Fuente: http://mdpi.com/



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