La generación de una justicia privatizada en los contratos estatales desde la óptica del derecho administrativo en Colombia Reportar como inadecuado




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3 Ciencias sociales - Social sciences

Este busca dar respuesta a la pregunta de investigación formulada, para lo cual resulta necesario anticipar mi posición frente al tema, manifestando mi distanciamiento a la figura arbitral en los contratos estatales, precisamente porque deja la justicia como valor supremo en manos de particulares. Sin embargo, a partir de esta constatación surge el siguiente cuestionamiento: ¿Será que la justicia arbitral entra a desplazar a la justicia estatal o por el contrario complementa su servicio?, la respuesta con este trabajo de investigación es que no la desplaza, sino que la complementa y en este sentido será una justicia en manos privadas pero como un mecanismo adicional para hacer efectivos los derechos de las partes en un contrato estatal. Inicialmente la orientación del trabajo de investigación fue la crítica directa de la justicia arbitral debido a razones de tipo formal, ya que prima facie, se observa que el hecho que los particulares tengan poder de decisión ante un conflicto que se pudiese suscitar en materia contractual Estatal, supone una desigualdad de cargas económicas entre el particular y el Estado, esto debido a que desde unas décadas atrás, no es raro encontrar en el clausulado de un contrato estatal, como fórmulas de solución a conflictos que se llegaren a suscitar entre el ciudadano contratista y la administración, en el desarrollo de un contrato, la cláusula compromisoria por ejemplo y la conformación de tribunales de arbitramento, lo que, a mi juicio, supone un privilegio que nuestro sistema jurídico otorga a aquellos que pueden pagar una justicia privada y salirse de los esquemas de la justicia estatal instituida como poder público. Este fenómeno, no es un hecho aislado ni azaroso, obedece a un modelo de Estado, a una forma del pensamiento filosófico político y económico que reorganiza todas las estructuras que conforman la sociedad para imponer sus propias categorías. Se trata entonces de una manifestación de las políticas neoliberales o neoclásicas, que propende por despojar al Estado de cualquier intervención que pueda afectar de manera directa o indirecta los mercados, de modo que la administración de justicia – con todos sus problemas sea dicho de paso - se convierte en un obstáculo para el desarrollo del capital, pero a su vez se convierte en un mercado donde hay unas personas interesadas en satisfacer una necesidad pronta y eficaz administración de justicia con procedimientos sumarios y sucintos y otras interesadas en ofrecer al mercado el servicio de lo que hoy se ha denominado mecanismos alternativos de solución de conflictos. Todo esto, teniendo en cuenta que el papel protagónico del Estado como prestador directo de los servicios públicos, durante el estado de bienestar, implicó todo un despliegue de figuras contractuales, que a su vez presentaba un complejo sistema de responsabilidades, las cuales cuando se tornaban en conflicto, era menester acudir ante la jurisdicción arbitral para que esta lo dirimiera. Al ser adoptadas las tesis neoliberales, el Estado pasó de prestador directo a vigilante de estos, para que fueran prestados en forma adecuada por el juego del mercado, quedándole reservado en ultimas el poder de solución de conflictos poder judicial. Sin embargo, los mecanismos alternativos de solución de conflictos se constituyeron como un privilegio haciendo a un lado a la justicia del Estado, para ser remplazado por una justicia -comprada- que funciona en los términos y con las reglas que las partes acuerden aun a pesar de que una de ellas, es la propia administración., Abstract. It seeks to answer the research question posed, which is necessary to anticipate my position on the issue, expressing my distancing Figure arbitration state contracts, precisely because it leaves justice as the supreme value in private hands. However, this finding arises from the following question: Does the arbitral justice displaces state court or otherwise complements its service? , the answer to this research is that it displaces, but supplement and in this respect will be a justice in private hands but as an additional mechanism to enforce the rights of the parties to a state contract. Initially the orientation of the research was a direct criticism of arbitral justice because of a formal reasons as prima facie, it appears that the fact that individuals are empowered with a conflict that could arise in connection State contract implies an inequality of financial burdens between the individual and the state, this because from a few decades ago, it is not uncommon to find in the clauses of a state contract, as formulas for solving conflicts that should come to arise between the contractor citizen and administration, in the development of a contract, the arbitration clause and the establishment such arbitration court, which, in my opinion, is a privilege that our legal system gives to those who can afford private justice and out of justice schemes instituted as a public state. This phenomenon is not an isolated or random, follows a state model, to a form of economic and political philosophical thought that rearranges all the structures that make up society to impose their own categories. This is therefore a manifestation of neoliberal policies or neoclassical, which tends to strip the state of any intervention that may affect directly or indirectly the markets, so that the administration of justice - with all its problems is by the way - becomes an obstacle to the development of capital, but in turn becomes a market where there are people interested in meeting a need prompt and efficient administration of justice and succinct summary proceedings and others interested in offering to the market service of what is now termed alternative mechanisms of conflict resolution. All this, taking into account the role of the state as a direct provider of public services for the welfare state, involved a whole array of contractual arrangements, which in turn had a complex system of responsibilities, which when were becoming conflict, it was necessary to resort to the arbitral jurisdiction for resolve it. Being adopted the neoliberal thesis; the state went from a direct provider to guard them, for them to be rendered properly by the market game, leaving him booked at last the power of redress judicial power. However, alternative mechanisms of conflict resolution as a privilege were set aside by the state courts, to be replaced by a justice -bought- that works in the terms and with the rules agreed by the parties even though that one of them is the administration itself. A deeper analysis of the issue allowed arbitral justice noted that actually works as a complement to the regular courts, with significant savings in time and therefore the public treasury resources, being essential that between justice and state arbitration has true collaboration, since the latter is essential to implement precautionary measures and the arbitral decision, since the arbitrators lack empire, but without being able to intervene in other matters which recognizes the movement of the state courts and the submission to arbitration: the reason is the freedom of choice, but this does not apply in state affairs when privileging the social interest, as we will see the end of our work. This paper is divided into three chapters, which set out the basic ideas of the subject under investigation. Thus we have, then, a first chapter that displays the institution of arbitration figures as one of the oldest private law of humanity and therefore above the judiciary, noting the currents around the legal nature of arbitration have been raised, ending it with the origin of the institution in Colombia. The second chapter is compilation of legislation on arbitration in Colombia, which allowed establishing the arbitration clause in the contracts of private law for conflict resolution, and then resumed in a much clearer in the 1971 trade legislation. Then rebuild the figure in some general contracting laws own administrative law, allowing the existence of arbitration clauses in contracts under public law, with the exception of the excessive powers of the administration, as the sunset clause, termination, unilateral modification and interpretation, which could not be negotiated and therefore not subject to arbitral decision. The third chapter is developed from a doctrinal perspective and criticism, as some say that justice has not sought arbitration replacing the state courts, but instead has been conceived as a mechanism for transitional support and assistance to the judicial process, others argue that arbitration is a mechanism that replaces the state courts, as an alternative to the use of the same, and those who believe that the institution of arbitration as a dispute resolution mechanisms in state affairs, should be rejected by the indeterminacy and competencies overlap made by the State to the particular. In the case of the first chapter, which concerns ARBITRATION AS A SPECIAL FORM OF JUSTICE, explaining what concerning the historical origin of the arbitration and how it develops in the two major legal systems, such as Western law, and common law or common law system? In the first one, was characterized by its evolution in public trials, with a summary nature. Appears the application of alternative dispute resolution in two categories: a the arbitrium merum, and bon Arbitrum viri, the first of a procedural nature. b The bon viri, extraprocedural nature. Despite this, Roman law did not accept that an arbitration agreement be agreed, did not recognize the agreements to resolve future disputes, but only the present. Roman courts could not enforce the award that could reach dictate. Later, Justinian ordered his lawyers to remove outdated laws, repetitive and conflicting, the authorized opinions of legal experts were collected in the Digest, in which beheld the additional arbitration proceedings mentioned, the same way the arbitration procedure is also contained in this compilation was used to settle legal disputes between two individuals, with the peculiarity, that through it was intended to prevent the use of ordinary procedural route. Accordingly, the award could be executed, provided that the execution is accepted in writing or ten days had elapsed opposition. The first law on arbitration, was given in 1698, when it was passed by the British Parliament, in which the parties were prohibited from revoking the arbitration agreement, seeking to consolidate the arbitration process is. In 1889, it is recognized and awarded significant effects to the arbitration agreement for future litigation and of course to settle disputes that have already arisen. Figure Arbitration in the Anglo world, from its inception was based on certain common principles of organization and operation, those who qualify for common law principles of -natural justice-, the principles that transcend all technical particularities and national, and without which we cannot speak of justice. Where uses custom and allow the third application, always attending natural principles. It could, indeed, be a due process without being strictly adhered to the principle of equality between the parties, the principle and that, similar but different, the right of defense and the need for a fair debate and demands with the presence of a third party that defines the dispute between the parties. In the same chapter is reflected the necessary legislative review of the arbitration Colombia and found the Law 105 of 1890, Act 103 of 1923, Act 105 of 1931, which defines more forcefully this institution, its scope, the nature of the function Arbitration, changes its structure by creating the figure of the secretary, with the 2nd Law of 1938 establishes the possibility of arbitration by way of the arbitration clause, the Civil Procedure Code Decrees 1400 and 2019 of 1970, which until today was being renovated, concrete figure of arbitration, designs the process, sets the arbitration agreement under the solemnity; provides for arbitration in conscience and in law. Issues the Commercial Code Act 410 of 1971, and in it rests regulatory aspects of arbitration figure so much clearer. Decree 222 of 1983, gives the first attempts at regulation of arbitration in administrative contracts, set the mode of technical arbitration as an option defined. As of Decree 2279 of 1989, the provisions are grouped hitherto scattered in the area, including referees power to grant an injunction limited, regulated third party intervention in the arbitral process, they open the door to state arbitration and reaffirms respect for international treaties which refers to international arbitration. With Act 23 of 1991, is given a real boost to the institutional arbitration. It can be said that from 1991 the arbitration in Colombia, happens to have a constitutional status, only the 1991 Constitution of the arbitration institution becomes important as a means to achieve justice. Special Decree 2651 of 1991, proposed the formula of arbitration, conciliation court decongestion enter the settlement hearing in arbitration, regulates the initial process of arbitration, giving a prominent role to the directors of the centers who enter replace the ordinary judge. Act 80 of 1983 as State procurement status for the first time enters regular one chapter dispute resolution, including alternative means establishing the institution of arbitration, both in the national and international. Subsequently issuing the Statutory Law of Justice Law 270 of 1996, which is collected and underpinning everything about arbitration and other dispute resolution mechanisms. Act 315 of 1996, is introduced in order to regulate it pertains to international arbitration in Colombia, setting the stage for identifying the foreign arbitration. Law 446 of 1998 defines and classifies arbitration in law, equity or technical. 794 The 2003 Act expressly allows the possibility that a party pay bail in order to achieve the non-suspension of enforcement of the award. As a corollary, the second chapter starts with the theme CONTRACTING STATE IN THE WELFARE STATE, speaking of this relationship is important to clarify the contractual relationship between the state and individuals are facing a precarious way. The government contracting is well known as the need arises by the state by solving the basic needs that are presented in order to comply with a general interest. Hiring revolved around civil law and more specifically to the civil code, as this was considered a private agreement between these parties, as you can see reflected in the law 163 of 1896. It appears the concept of the welfare state, and the emergence of the theory of public service. Corresponds roughly half century from 1940-1960. Splendor is the stage of public service. With the Law 167 of 1941, which corresponds to the -Administrative Code- which was valid until 1984, when it issued Decree 01 of 1984. This law 167 of 1941 has significance because it was a law that aroused great controversy. At this stage of State Interventionism and it shows a different dynamic state contract. Is this the formative stage as it relates to state procurement process? Act 167 of 1941, highlighting two important rules: Article 73 and Article 254. The art. 73, to reaffirm the 1886 Constitution, saying it has the Supreme Court knowledge of disputes concerning administrative contracts here there is talk of administrative contracts, a name that did not correspond to reality. Article 254 which then was the reason for the dispute, and I attribute imposed mandatory public institutions forced stipulation Forfeiture Clause in the following contracts: Public Works services, supplies and public credit operations and borrowings in these past his explanation is given in that banks and financial institutions were state. The controversy was embodied in Article 254, because he was leaving the outline of equality of parties in civil law is proclaimed in Article 1602 and continues stipulating rules of civil law, thus resulting regulation contrary to libertarian Civil Contract. In 1955 there are two rules: Decree 351 of 1955 chartered by the first -National Procurement Regulations- giving solution to the anarchy that existed in all State agencies in procurement, on how things and goods should be bayed. Were created the -Quotes-, and the -Shopping Committee-, and was established a regime in terms of level competencies for purchases and supplies.

Tipo de documento: Tesis-trabajos de grado - Thesis Maestría

Colaborador - Asesor: Herrera Osorio, Fredy Andrei

Información adicional: Magister en Derecho. AP en Derecho Administrativo

Palabras clave: Justicia privatizada, Contratos estatales, Derecho administrativo, Conciliación, Arbitraje, Justice privatized, State contracts, Administrative Law, Conciliation, Arbitration

Temática: 3 Ciencias sociales - Social sciences3 Ciencias sociales - Social sciences 32 Ciencia política - Political science3 Ciencias sociales - Social sciences 34 Derecho - Law3 Ciencias sociales - Social sciences 35 Administración pública y ciencia militar - Public administration and military science





Fuente: http://www.bdigital.unal.edu.co


Introducción



La generación de una justicia privatizada en los contratos estatales desde la óptica del Derecho Administrativo Javier Enrique Crespo Buelvas Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad de Derecho, Ciencias Políticas y Sociales Barranquilla, Colombia 2013 La generación de una justicia privatizada en los contratos estatales desde la óptica del Derecho Administrativo en Colombia. Javier Enrique Crespo Buelvas Trabajo de grado presentado como requisito parcial para optar al título de Magister en Derecho – AP en Derecho Administrativo Director: Doctor Fredy Andrei Herrera Osorio Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad de Derecho, Ciencias Políticas y Sociales Barranquilla, Colombia 2013 Tabla de Contenido Introducción 1.
Capítulo Primero: Los orígenes del arbitraje 1.1 El instituto del arbitraje 1.2.
El arbitraje como una forma especial de administración de justicia. 2.Capítulo Segundo: El arbitraje en Colombia 2.1.
Evolución del arbitramento en el sistema jurídico Colombiano 2.2.
El contrato estatal y la justicia arbitral. 3.Capítulo Tercero: Reemplazo o complemento, la dualidad del arbitraje 3.1.La justicia arbitral y las soluciones en términos de igualdad – Critica General. 3.2.La constitucion como depositaria del modelo politico para salvaguarda de la igualdad como principio – Critica Estatal. 3.3.
El arbitramento en asuntos de contratación estatal: sustitución, o complementación de la justicia ordinaria. 4.
Conclusiones Bibliografía INTRODUCCIÓN La convivencia en sociedad, conlleva que las actividades entre las personas se encuentren en situaciones de conflictos, que pueden consistir en simples divergencias o que representen negociaciones o interacciones entre quienes están involucrados en ella, en las cuales, las partes, en muchas ocasiones, no están dispuestas a ceder en sus diferencias o no son capaces de resolverlas1. Esto indica que el conflicto entre individuos aparece ligado a la coexistencia, a la sociabilidad ...






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