NASA Technical Reports Server NTRS 20150016031: Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust ExposureReportar como inadecuado



 NASA Technical Reports Server NTRS 20150016031: Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure


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Crew members can be directly exposed to celestial dust in several ways. After crew members perform extravehicular activities EVAs, they may introduce into the habitat dust that will have collected on spacesuits and boots. Cleaning of the suits between EVAs and changing of the Environmental Control Life Support System filters are other operations that could result in direct exposure to celestial dusts. In addition, if the spacesuits used in exploration missions abrade the skin, as current EVA suits have, then contact with these wounds would provide a source of exposure. Further, if celestial dusts gain access to a suits interior, as was the case during the Apollo missions, the dust could serve as an additional source of abrasions or enhance suit-induced injuries. When a crew leaves the surface of a celestial body and returns to microgravity, the dust that is introduced into the return vehicle will -float,- thus increasing the opportunity for ocular and respiratory injury. Because the features of the respirable fraction of lunar dusts indicate they could be toxic to humans, NASA conducted several studies utilizing lunar dust simulants and authentic lunar dust to determine the unique properties of lunar dust that affect physiology, assess the dermal and ocular irritancy of the dust, and establish a permissible exposure limit for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during missions that would involve no more than 6 months stay on the lunar surface. Studies, with authentic lunar soils from both highland Apollo 16 and mare Apollo17 regions demonstrated that the lunar soil is highly abrasive to a high fidelity model of human skin. Studies of lunar dust returned during the Apollo 14 mission from an area of the moon in which the soils were comprised of mineral constituents from both major geological regions highlands and mares regions demonstrated only minimal ocular irritancy, and pulmonary toxicity that was less than the highly toxic terrestrial crystalline silica Permissible Exposure Limit PEL 0.05 mg-m3 but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide TiO2 PEL 5.0 mg-m3. A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg-m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010, examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems



Autor: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuente: https://archive.org/







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