Vol 5: Lymphopenia-Induced Proliferation in Aire-Deficient Mice Helps to Explain Their Autoimmunity and Differences from Human Patients.Reportar como inadecuado



 Vol 5: Lymphopenia-Induced Proliferation in Aire-Deficient Mice Helps to Explain Their Autoimmunity and Differences from Human Patients.


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This article is from Frontiers in Immunology, volume 5.AbstractStudies on autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy APECED and its mouse model – both caused by mutant AIRE – have greatly advanced the understanding of thymic processes that generate a self-tolerant T-cell repertoire. Much is now known about the molecular mechanisms by which AIRE induces tissue-specific antigen expression in thymic epithelium, and how this leads to negative selection of auto-reactive thymocytes. However, we still do not understand the processes that lead to the activation of any infrequent naïve auto-reactive T-cells exported by AIRE-deficient thymi. Also, the striking phenotypic differences between APECED and its mouse models have puzzled researchers for years. The aim of this review is to suggest explanations for some of these unanswered questions, based on a fresh view of published experiments. We review evidence that auto-reactive T-cells can be activated by the prolonged neonatal lymphopenia that naturally develops in young Aire-deficient mice due to delayed export of mature thymocytes. Lymphopenia-induced proliferation LIP helps to fill the empty space; by favoring auto-reactive T-cells, it also leads to lymphocyte infiltration in the same tissues as in day 3 thymectomized animals. The LIP becomes uncontrolled when loss of Aire is combined with defects in genes responsible for anergy induction and Treg responsiveness, or in signaling from the T-cell receptor and homeostatic cytokines. In APECED patients, LIP is much less likely to be involved in activation of naïve auto-reactive T-cells, as humans are born with a more mature immune system than in neonatal mice. We suggest that human AIRE-deficiency presents with different phenotypes because of additional precipitating factors that compound the defective negative selection of potentially autoaggressive tissue-specific thymocytes.



Autor: Kisand, Kai; Peterson, Part; Laan, Martti

Fuente: https://archive.org/



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