Comparison of stainless and mild steel welding fumes in generation of reactive oxygen speciesReportar como inadecuado

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Particle and Fibre Toxicology

, 7:32

First Online: 03 November 2010Received: 25 June 2010Accepted: 03 November 2010


BackgroundWelding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can be deposited in all regions of the respiratory tract. The welding aerosol is not homogeneous and is generated mostly from the electrode-wire. Over 390,000 welders were reported in the U.S. in 2008 while over 1 million full-time welders were working worldwide. Many health effects are presently under investigation from exposure to welding fumes. Welding fume pulmonary effects have been associated with bronchitis, metal fume fever, cancer and functional changes in the lung. Our investigation focused on the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species from stainless and mild steel welding fumes generated by a gas metal arc robotic welder. An inhalation exposure chamber located at NIOSH was used to collect the welding fume particles.

ResultsOur results show that hydroxyl radicals OH were generated from reactions with H2O2 and after exposure to cells. Catalase reduced the generation of OH from exposed cells indicating the involvement of H2O2. The welding fume suspension also showed the ability to cause lipid peroxidation, effect O2 consumption, induce H2O2 generation in cells, and cause DNA damage.

ConclusionIncrease in oxidative damage observed in the cellular exposures correlated well with OH generation in size and type of welding fumes, indicating the influence of metal type and transition state on radical production as well as associated damage. Our results demonstrate that both types of welding fumes are able to generate ROS and ROS-related damage over a range of particle sizes; however, the stainless steel fumes consistently showed a significantly higher reactivity and radical generation capacity. The chemical composition of the steel had a significant impact on the ROS generation capacity with the stainless steel containing Cr and Ni causing more damage than the mild steel. Our results suggest that welding fumes may cause acute lung injury. Since type of fume generated, particle size, and elapsed time after generation of the welding exposure are significant factors in radical generation and particle deposition these factors should be considered when developing protective strategies.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1743-8977-7-32 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Stephen S Leonard - Bean T Chen - Samuel G Stone - Diane Schwegler-Berry - Allison J Kenyon - David Frazer - James M A


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