Continental hydrosystem modelling: the concept of nested stream–aquifer interfacesReport as inadecuate

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* Corresponding author 1 GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences 2 METIS - Milieux Environnementaux, Transferts et Interactions dans les hydrosystèmes et les Sols 3 LEGOS - Laboratoire d-études en Géophysique et océanographie spatiales

Abstract : Coupled hydrological-hydrogeological models, emphasising the importance of the stream–aquifer interface, are more and more used in hydrological sciences for pluri-disciplinary studies aiming at investigating environmental is-sues. Based on an extensive literature review, stream–aquifer interfaces are described at five different scales: local 10 cm– ∼ 10 m, intermediate ∼ 10 m–∼ 1 km, watershed 10 km 2 – ∼ 1000 km 2 , regional 10 000 km 2 –∼ 1 M km 2 and conti-nental scales > 10 M km 2 . This led us to develop the con-cept of nested stream–aquifer interfaces, which extends the well-known vision of nested groundwater pathways towards the surface, where the mixing of low frequency processes and high frequency processes coupled with the complexity of geomorphological features and heterogeneities creates hy-drological spiralling. This conceptual framework allows the identification of a hierarchical order of the multi-scale con-trol factors of stream–aquifer hydrological exchanges, from the larger scale to the finer scale. The hyporheic corridor, which couples the river to its 3-D hyporheic zone, is then identified as the key component for scaling hydrological pro-cesses occurring at the interface. The identification of the hy-porheic corridor as the support of the hydrological processes scaling is an important step for the development of regional studies, which is one of the main concerns for water practi-tioners and resources managers. In a second part, the modelling of the stream–aquifer in-terface at various scales is investigated with the help of the conductance model. Although the usage of the temperature as a tracer of the flow is a robust method for the assess-ment of stream–aquifer exchanges at the local scale, there is a crucial need to develop innovative methodologies for as-sessing stream–aquifer exchanges at the regional scale. After formulating the conductance model at the regional and inter-mediate scales, we address this challenging issue with the de-velopment of an iterative modelling methodology, which en-sures the consistency of stream–aquifer exchanges between the intermediate and regional scales. Finally, practical recommendations are provided for the study of the interface using the innovative methodology MIM Measurements–Interpolation–Modelling, which is graphi-cally developed, scaling in space the three pools of methods needed to fully understand stream–aquifer interfaces at vari-ous scales. In the MIM space, stream–aquifer interfaces that can be studied by a given approach are localised. The ef-ficiency of the method is demonstrated with two examples. The first one proposes an upscaling framework, structured around river reaches of ∼ 10–100 m, from the local to the wa-tershed scale. The second example highlights the usefulness of space borne data to improve the assessment of stream– aquifer exchanges at the regional and continental scales. We conclude that further developments in modelling and field measurements have to be undertaken at the regional scale to enable a proper modelling of stream–aquifer exchanges from the local to the continental scale.

Keywords : Temporal Variability Water-Groundwater Interactions Surface-Subsurface Exchange Hydrologic-Response Simulation Reducing Monitoring Gaps Temperature Time-Series Climate-Change Impacts Small Drainage Basins Hyporheic Exchange Hydraulic Conductivity

Author: Nicolas Flipo - Amer Mouhri - Baptiste Labarthe - Sylvain Biancamaria - Agnès Rivière - Pierre Weill -



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