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Abstract: In equilibrium, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem FDT expresses theresponse of an observable to a small perturbation by a correlation function ofthis variable with another one that is conjugate to the perturbation withrespect to \emph{energy}. For a nonequilibrium steady state NESS, thecorresponding FDT is shown to involve in the correlation function a variablethat is conjugate with respect to \emph{entropy}. By splitting up entropyproduction into one of the system and one of the medium, it is shown that forsystems with a genuine equilibrium state the FDT of the NESS differs from itsequilibrium form by an additive term involving \emph{total} entropy production.A related variant of the FDT not requiring explicit knowledge of the stationarystate is particularly useful for coupled Langevin systems. The \emph{a priori}surprising freedom apparently involved in different forms of the FDT in a NESSis clarified.



Autor: Udo Seifert, Thomas Speck

Fuente: https://arxiv.org/



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