Identification of two regulatory binding sites which confer myotube specific expression of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART1 geneReportar como inadecuado

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BMC Molecular Biology

, 9:91

First Online: 21 October 2008Received: 02 July 2008Accepted: 21 October 2008


BackgroundMono-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART 1 belongs to a family of mammalian ectoenzymes that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to a target protein. ART1 is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. It ADP-ribosylates α7-integrin which together with β1-integrin forms a dimer and binds to laminin, a protein of the extracellular matrix involved in cell adhesion. This posttranslational modification leads to an increased laminin binding affinity.

ResultsUsing C2C12 and C3H-10T 1-2 cells as models of myogenesis, we found that ART1 expression was restricted to myotube formation. We identified a fragment spanning the gene 1.3 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site as the functional promoter of the ART1 gene. This region contains an E box and an A-T-rich element, two conserved binding sites for transcription factors found in the promoters of most skeletal muscle specific genes. Mutating the DNA consensus sequence of either the E box or the A-T-rich element resulted in a nearly complete loss of ART1 promoter inducibility, indicating a cooperative role of the transcription factors binding to those sites. Gel mobility shift analyses carried out with nuclear extracts from C2C12 and C3H-10T 1-2 cells revealed binding of myogenin to the E box and MEF-2 to the A-T-rich element, the binding being restricted to C2C12 and C3H-10T 1-2 myotubes.

ConclusionHere we describe the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of the ART1 gene expression in skeletal muscle cells. The differentiation-dependent upregulation of ART1 mRNA is induced by the binding of myogenin to an E box and of MEF-2 to an A-T-rich element in the proximal promoter region of the ART1 gene. Thus the transcriptional regulation involves molecular mechanisms similar to those used to activate muscle-specific genes.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2199-9-91 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Maik Friedrich - Levin Böhlig - Ralf D Kirschner - Kurt Engeland - Sunna Hauschildt


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