Punica granatumPomegranate juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicideReportar como inadecuado

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BMC Infectious Diseases

, 4:41

First Online: 14 October 2004Received: 08 July 2004Accepted: 14 October 2004


BackgroundFor ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option.

MethodsFruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: 1 infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and 2 binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredients to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates.

ResultsHIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4-CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O.

ConclusionThese results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored.

Abbreviations usedAIDSacquired immunodeficiency syndrome

BSAbovine serum albumin

ED5090effective doses for 50% 90% inhibition of infection

ELISAenzyme linked immunosorbent assays

FBSfetal bovine serum

FLSCa full length single chain protein consisting of BaL gp120 linked with the D1D2 domains of CD4 by a 20 amino acid linker

HIV-1human immunodeficiency virus type 1

HRPhorseradish peroxidase

LTRlong terminal repeat

PBMCsperipheral blood mononuclear cells

PBSphosphate buffered saline

PEGpolyethylene glycols

PJpomegranate juice

S21PURITY21 corn starch NF grade

SFseminal fluid

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2334-4-41 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: A Robert Neurath - Nathan Strick - Yun-Yao Li - Asim K Debnath

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/

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