Comparative physiological plasticity to desiccation in distinct populations of the malarial mosquito Anopheles coluzziiReportar como inadecuado

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* Corresponding author 1 IRBI - Institut de recherche sur la biologie de l-insecte 2 IEES - Institut d-écologie et des sciences de l-environnement de Paris 3 IRSS - Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé 4 MIVEGEC - Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Montpellier 5 ECOBIO - Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution Rennes

Abstract : BackgroundIn West Africa, populations of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii, are seasonally exposed to strong desiccating conditions during the dry season. Their dynamics strictly follows the pace of the availability of suitable larval development sites water collections. Accordingly, mosquitoes can reproduce all year long where permanent breeding is possible, or stop reproduction and virtually disappear at the onset of the dry season when surface water dries up, like observed in temporary habitats of dry savannah areas. This highlights the strong adaptive abilities of this mosquito species, which relies at least in part, upon physiological and molecular mechanisms of specific signatures.MethodsHere, we analysed a range of physiological and molecular responses expressed by geographically different populations of An. coluzzii inhabiting permanent and temporary breeding sites from the north and the south-west of Burkina Faso. Four mosquito colonies, namely i Oursi, built from females breeding in permanent habitats of the north; ii Déou, from temporary northern habitats; iii Soumousso from south-western temporary breeding sites; and iv Bama, from permanent habitats of the same south-western zone, were reared in climatic chambers under contrasted environmental conditions, mimicking temperature, relative humidity and light regimen occurring in northern Burkina Faso. Female mosquitoes were analysed for the seasonal variation in their amounts of proteins, triglycerides and free-circulating metabolites. The expression level of genes coding for the adipokinetic AKH-I and the AKH-corazonin-related peptides ACP were also assessed and compared among populations and environmental conditions.ResultsOur analysis did not reveal an apparent pattern of physiological and molecular variations strictly correlated with either the larval ecotype or the geographical origin of the mosquitoes. However, specific distinct responses were observed among populations, suggesting that dry season survival may rely on more complex ecological parameters at a micro-habitat scale. Interestingly, the physiological and molecular data support the hypothesis that different aestivation abilities exist among populations of An. coluzzii inhabiting contrasted ecological settings. In particular, the striking metabotypes differentiation and the AKH mRNA expression level observed in females from temporary northern populations may suggest the existence of a -strong- aestivation strategy in these specimens.ConclusionOur work provides insights into the physiological and molecular basis of dry and rainy season responses in An. coluzzii, and highlights the important diversity of the mechanisms involved. Such results represent key data for understanding the ecophysiological mechanisms underpinning the strong adaptive potential of this malaria vector species, which undoubtedly contributes to the spreading of mosquito distribution areas in space and time.

Keywords : Anopheles coluzzii Dry season Energetic reserves Metabolomics Survival strategy AKH Malaria Burkina Faso

Autor: Kevin Hidalgo - David Siaussat - V. Braman - K. Dabiré - Frédéric Simard - Karine Mouline - David Renault -



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