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International Journal of Breast CancerVolume 2012 2012, Article ID 761917, 9 pages

Review ArticleNational Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology NIGEB, Pajoohesh Boulevard, Tehran-Karaj HWY, Km 15, Tehran 1497716316, Iran

Received 31 October 2011; Accepted 11 November 2011

Academic Editor: Rita Nahta

Copyright © 2012 Sahar Shojaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Epidermal growth factor EGF family of receptors is involved in cell growth and differentiation. The human EGF2 HER2 lacks natural ligands, and correlation between HER2 levels and carcinogenesis makes the receptor an ideal candidate for targeted therapy in breast cancer. Trastuzumab is a humanized antibody applied against HER2-positive breast tumors in clinic. Metastatic tumors respond well to trastuzumab therapy for the first year, but development of antibody resistance helps the tumors to regrow allowing the disease to progress. Trastuzumab resistance is shaped via a range of intracellular signaling pathways that are interconnected and share in key effector molecules. Identification of a common node central to these resistance pathways could provide an ultimate solution for trastuzumab resistance in breast and other cancers.

Author: Sahar Shojaei, Mossa Gardaneh, and Abbas Rahimi Shamabadi



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