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Pulmonary MedicineVolume 2014 2014, Article ID 594806, 8 pages

Review Article

Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College, Karnal, Haryana 132001, India

Department of Pathology, Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College, Karnal, Haryana 132001, India

Received 18 June 2014; Revised 27 July 2014; Accepted 28 July 2014; Published 14 August 2014

Academic Editor: Akio Niimi

Copyright © 2014 Surender Kashyap and Anjali Solanki. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Despite the rapid advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, endobronchial tuberculosis EBTB, defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree, continues to remain challenging for clinicians. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms along with normal chest radiograph in 10–20% of cases may be alleged for the diagnostic delay. Variable diagnostic yield with sputum microscopy might further compound the problem. In such cases, high resolution computed tomography HRCT works as a more sensitive tool and demonstrates involvement of tracheobronchial tree described classically as -tree-in-bud- appearance. Bronchoscopic biopsy is considered the most reliable method for confirmation of the diagnosis with 30% to 84% positivity in different series. Evolution of the disease is also unpredictable with frequent progression to bronchostenosis, therefore requiring regular follow-up and early intervention to halt the natural course. This review article elaborates various aspects of the disease with specific focus on diagnostic dilemma and recent advances in interventional bronchoscopy. In addition, this discussion evokes optimism for further research and introduction of innovative therapeutic modalities.

Autor: Surender Kashyap and Anjali Solanki



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