# The probability of planarity of a random graph near the critical point

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1 Departament de Matemàtica Aplicada II UPC - Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Barcelona 2 LIAFA - Laboratoire d-informatique Algorithmique : Fondements et Applications 3 Instituto de Ciencias Matemàticas Madrid

Abstract : Erdős and Rényi conjectured in 1960 that the limiting probability $p$ that a random graph with $n$ vertices and $M=n-2$ edges is planar exists. It has been shown that indeed p exists and is a constant strictly between 0 and 1. In this paper we answer completely this long standing question by finding an exact expression for this probability, whose approximate value turns out to be $p ≈0.99780$. More generally, we compute the probability of planarity at the critical window of width $n^{2-3}$ around the critical point $M=n-2$. We extend these results to some classes of graphs closed under taking minors. As an example, we show that the probability of being series-parallel converges to 0.98003. Our proofs rely on exploiting the structure of random graphs in the critical window, obtained previously by Janson, Łuczak and Wierman, by means of generating functions and analytic methods. This is a striking example of how analytic combinatorics can be applied to classical problems on random graphs.

Keywords : random graphs planar cubic multigraphs analytic combinatorics

Author: ** Marc Noy - Vlady Ravelomanana - Juanjo Rué - **

Source: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/