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International Journal of Otolaryngology - Volume 2014 2014, Article ID 507189, 7 pages -

Research Article

Department of Surgery, ENT Division, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 330-00202, Nairobi, Kenya

ENT Head & Neck Department, Kenyatta National Hospital, P.O. Box 20723-00202, Nairobi, Kenya

Received 24 July 2013; Revised 27 October 2013; Accepted 7 November 2013; Published 21 January 2014

Academic Editor: David W. Eisele

Copyright © 2014 Owen Pyeko Menach et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer worldwide. Objective. To determine the demographic characteristics of patients with laryngeal cancer, establish their tumor characteristics and relate it to their smoking and alcohol ingestion habits. Methods. Fifty cases and fifty controls were recruited of matching age, sex, and region of residence. History and pattern of cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion was taken and analyzed. Results. 33 66% of the cases and 3 6% among controls were current cigarette smokers. 74% had smoked for more than 30 years, OR 21.3 95% CI: 2.6–176.1. There was a male predominance 96% and most cases 62% were from the ethnic communities in the highland areas of Kenya predominantly in Central and Eastern provinces. Very heavy drinkers had increased risk of OR, 6.0 95% CI: 1.957–18.398 and those who smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol had poorly differentiated tumors G3, , OR 11.652 95% CI 2.305–58.895, and G4, OR 7.286 95% CI 0.726–73.075. They also presented with advanced disease 73.6%. Conclusion. Cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion are strong risk factors for development of late stage and poorly differentiated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya.

Autor: Owen Pyeko Menach, Asmeeta Patel, and Herbert Ouma Oburra



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