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Investigative Genetics

, 1:14

First Online: 01 December 2010Received: 20 July 2010Accepted: 01 December 2010


DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements.

AbbreviationsBSAbovine serum albumin

LCNlow copy number

LRlikelihood ratio

LT DNAlow template DNA

PCRpolymerase chain reaction

PEprobability of exclusion

RMNErandom man not excluded

SNPsingle nucleotide polymorphism

STRshort tandem repeats

WGAwhole genome amplification.

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Autor: Roland AH van Oorschot - Kaye N Ballantyne - R John Mitchell


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