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Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 6305–6312

First Online: 24 March 2015Received: 06 October 2014Accepted: 08 March 2015


Gallbladder carcinoma GBC is the most common cancer of the biliary tract. Lymph node metastasis LNM is the major diffusion route of GBC and is a prognosis factor. The aim of study was to assess the potential of the serum VEGF-C and VEGF-D sVEGF-C-D levels to predict the presence of LNM and the survival of GBC patients. The preoperative sVEGF-C-D levels of 31 patients with GBC, 10 patients with cholesterol polyps, and 10 healthy volunteers were measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay ELISA. The sVEGF-C-D levels of patients with GBC were significantly higher than those of people with healthy gallbladders p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively and cholesterol polyp p = 0.032 and p = 0.004, respectively. In GBC, the sVEGF-C levels were associated with LNM p = 0.011, distant metastasis p = 0.018, and stage p = 0.045, but the sVEGF-D levels had a significant association with the tumor depth p = 0.001, LNM p = 0.001, distant metastasis p = 0.047, and stage p = 0.002. The sVEGF-C-D diagnostic values for the presence of GBC were sensitivity of 71.0 and 74.2 % and specificity of 80.0 and 85.0 %, respectively. With respect to the diagnosis of LNM, the diagnostic values of sVEGF-C-D were as follows: sensitivity 81.2 and 87.5 % and specificity 73.3 and 80.0 %, respectively. The mean survival time with high sVEGF-C was significantly shorter than that with low sVEGF-C p < 0.001, which was also true for low sVEGF-D p = 0.032. The preoperative sVEGF-C-D levels might be reliable biomarkers for the presence of disease and LNM in patients with GBC. The sVEGF-C-D levels may be prognosis factors that can predict a poor outcome for GBC patients.

KeywordsGallbladder carcinoma Serum VEGF-C Serum VEGF-D Lymph nodes metastases Prognosis Min-Chao Liu and Lei Jiang contributed equally to this work.

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Author: Min-Chao Liu - Lei Jiang - Hai-Jie Hong - Ze-Wu Meng - Qiang Du - Liang-Yi Zhou - Fei-Fei She - Yan-Ling Chen


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