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Biomarker Research

, 5:4

First Online: 07 February 2017Received: 05 November 2016Accepted: 03 January 2017


Synovial sarcoma SS is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma STS that typically occurs in the extremities near a joint. Metastatic disease is common and usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation typically used as adjuvant treatment. Although chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival, the prognosis is poor if metastatic disease occurs. The biology of sarcoma invasion and metastasis remain poorly understood. Chromosomal translocation with fusion of the SYT and SSX genes has been described and is currently used as a diagnostic marker, although the full impact of the fusion is unknown. Multiple biomarkers have been found to be associated with SS and are currently under investigation regarding their pathways and mechanisms of action. Further research is needed in order to develop better diagnostic screening tools and understanding of tumor behavior. Development of targeted therapies that reduce metastatic events in SS, would dramatically improve patient prognosis.

KeywordsSYT-SSX CDCA2 KIF14 IGFBP7 Secernin-1 E2H2 MMPs NY-ESO-1 CXCR4 AbbreviationsAktSerine-threonine kinase

ATF2Activating transcription factor 2

BAFBRG-BRM-associated factor

BPSSBiphasic synovial sarcoma

CDCA2Cell division cycle A2

CTCCirculating tumor cells

C-X-C motifChemokine

CXCL12ligand 12

CXCR4Chemokine receptor 4

ECMextracellular matrix

EMTEpithelial mesenchymal transition

ERK1-2extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1-2

EZH2Enhancer of zeste homologue 2

IGF1RInsulin like growth factor 1 receptor

IGFBP7Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7

IGFBP-rP1IGFBP-related protein-1

KIF14Kinesin family member 14

MAPKMitogen-activated protein kinases

MMPsMatrix metalloproteinases

MPSSMonophasic synovial sarcoma

mTORMammalian target of rapamycin

NF-κBNuclear factor-κB

NY-ESO-1New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1

PBMCsPeripheral blood mononuclear cell

PcGPolycomb group

PDSSPoorly differentiated synovial sarcoma

PDXPatient-derived xenograft


PKBProtein kinase B



SOX2SRY sex-determining region Y-box 2

SSSynovial sarcoma

STSSoft tissue sarcoma

TGF-βTransforming growth factor beta

TIMPTissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases

TLE1Transducin like enhancer of split 1

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Autor: Rosalia de Necochea-Campion - Lee M. Zuckerman - Hamid R. Mirshahidi - Shahrzad Khosrowpour - Chien-Shing Chen - Saied Mir


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