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European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 19, Issue 9, pp 715–724

First Online: 25 May 2010Received: 08 September 2009Accepted: 31 March 2010


Neurofeedback NF could help to improve attentional and self-management capabilities in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder ADHD. In a randomised controlled trial, NF training was found to be superior to a computerised attention skills training AST Gevensleben et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 507:780–789, 2009. In the present paper, treatment effects at 6-month follow-up were studied. 94 children with ADHD, aged 8–12 years, completed either 36 sessions of NF training n = 59 or a computerised AST n = 35. Pre-training, post-training and follow-up assessment encompassed several behaviour rating scales e.g., the German ADHD rating scale, FBB-HKS completed by parents. Follow-up information was analysed in 61 children ca. 65% on a per-protocol basis. 17 children of 33 dropouts had started a medication after the end of the training or early in the follow-up period. Improvements in the NF group n = 38 at follow-up were superior to those of the control group n = 23 and comparable to the effects at the end of the training. For the FBB-HKS total score primary outcome measure, a medium effect size of 0.71 was obtained at follow-up. A reduction of at least 25% in the primary outcome measure responder criterion was observed in 50% of the children in the NF group. In conclusion, behavioural improvements induced by NF training in children with ADHD were maintained at a 6-month follow-up. Though treatment effects appear to be limited, the results confirm the notion that NF is a clinically efficacious module in the treatment of children with ADHD.

KeywordsADHD Neurofeedback Randomised controlled trial RCT Follow-up Children Trial registry: ISRCTN87071503. Comparison of neurofeedback and computerised attention skills training in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder ADHD;

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Autor: Holger Gevensleben - Birgit Holl - Björn Albrecht - Dieter Schlamp - Oliver Kratz - Petra Studer - Aribert Rothenberger -


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