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International Journal of HepatologyVolume 2012 2012, Article ID 282430, 8 pages

Review Article

Division of Cell Cycle, Regeneration and Liver Diseases, EMC Department, Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, 24 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris, France

CNRS, UMR8104, Paris, France

Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France

Received 21 May 2012; Accepted 10 September 2012

Academic Editor: Pascal Loyer

Copyright © 2012 Géraldine Gentric et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Most cells in mammalian tissues usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, numerous studies have demonstrated a major role of “diploid-polyploid conversion” during physiopathological processes in several tissues. In the liver parenchyma, progressive polyploidization of hepatocytes takes place during postnatal growth. Indeed, at the suckling-weaning transition, cytokinesis failure events induce the genesis of binucleated tetraploid liver cells. Insulin signalling, through regulation of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway, is essential in the establishment of liver tetraploidization by controlling cytoskeletal organisation and consequently mitosis progression. Liver cell polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence, and both lead to a progressive loss of cell pluripotency associated to a markedly decreased replication capacity. Although adult liver is a quiescent organ, it retains a capacity to proliferate and to modulate its ploidy in response to various stimuli or aggression partial hepatectomy, metabolic overload i.e., high copper and iron hepatic levels, oxidative stress, toxic insult, and chronic hepatitis etc

Here we review the mechanisms and functional consequences of hepatocytes polyploidization during normal and pathological liver growth.





Autor: Géraldine Gentric, Chantal Desdouets, and Séverine Celton-Morizur

Fuente: https://www.hindawi.com/



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