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Medical Gas Research

, 2:8

First Online: 04 April 2012Received: 12 September 2011Accepted: 04 April 2012

Abstract

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is biological damage that is associated with increased oxidative stress. It is therefore important and would be enabling to mitigate and-or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a -systems biology- approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and as biological signaling molecules for management of the body-s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it can be concluded that this approach may have therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia-reperfusion IR injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson-s and Alzheimer-s disease, cataracts, and aging. We envision applying these therapies through inhalation of gas mixtures or ingestion of water with dissolved gases.

Keywordsspace radiation radiolysis radiochemistry radiation shielding therapeutic medical gas reactive oxygen species oxidative stress countermeasure List of abbreviations8-OHdG8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine

APOEApolipoprotein E

ARDSAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrom

ATMataxia telangiectasia mutated gene

BWRBoiling Water Reactor

DNADeoxyribonucleic acid

dROMSderivatives of Reactive Oxidative Metabolites

FRASFree Radical Analytical System

GCRGalactic Cosmic Rays

GyGrey

GSHGlutathione tripeptide

HTxHeart Transplantation

HWHydrogen Water

HWCHydrogen Water Chemistry

HZEHigh Z and Energy Z - Atomic #

LDHLactate dehydrogenase

LETLinear Energy Transfer

MDAMalondialdehyde

MPTP1-mtehyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

OCPOpen Circuit Potential

OEROxygen Enhancement Ratio

ppbparts per billion

ppmparts per million

QOLQuality of Life

ROSReactive Oxygen Species

SEPSolar Energetic Particles

SODSuperoxide dismutase

TBITotal Body Irradiation.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-2045-9912-2-8 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Michael P Schoenfeld - Rafat R Ansari - Atsunori Nakao - David Wink

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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